Sleep Breath. 2011 Jan 27. Correlation of clinical profiles with obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome. Hasan A, Uzma N, Swamy TL, Shoba A, Kumar BS. Department of Respiratory Medicine, Owaisi Hospital and Research Center, Hyderabad, India, 500 058, firstname.lastname@example.org.
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition being increasingly recognized and is associated with many diseases. Few data are available for Indian patients and public health hazard of the condition continues to be seriously underestimated in this country. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia (HLP) in a South Indian population with proven OSA.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data accrued in patients undergoing polysomnography (PSG) was undertaken. Two hundred thirty-four patients of either sex in the age of 54 ± 11 years who tested positive for OSA were compared with control group. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >5 in the presence of snoring and daytime somnolence was taken to define sleep apnea.
RESULTS: The mean AHI among the study group with OSA was 31.3 ± 18.6 as compared with 1.2 ± 0.5 in the control group. The BMI among patients with OSA was 36 ± 6 as compared with 29 ± 4 in comparison group (p < 0.001). Among the patients with OSA, 31% were having HLP, 59% were diabetics, and 86% were hypertensive. Subjects with PSG-proven OSA had significant levels of day time sleepiness, lack of concentration, changes in mood, morning headache, and dry mouth. Nonrestorative sleep, awakening with choking, nocturnal dyspnea, insomnia with frequent awakenings, nocturia, and diaphoresis were observed in (>80%) patients. A significant difference in the sleep efficiency (16%), sleep onset (14%), and mean saturation (9%) was observed in the study group as compared to the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk of obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and HLP in OSA syndrome patients was almost three times more than that of the comparing group.